摘要：传统红茶菌菌膜发酵生产周期长，微生物组成较为复杂、易受杂菌污染，很难保证红茶菌产品的稳定性。该文以红茶为原料，采用自主筛选的醋酸菌纯种及市售纯菌酵母菌、乳酸菌进行红茶菌饮品改良发酵以及传统产膜红茶菌发酵，对比研究二者在不同发酵阶段的有效成分变化。结果表明，传统的红茶菌菌膜发酵液中没有检出超氧化物歧化酶（Superoxide Dismutase，SOD）活性，醋酸菌、酵母菌、乳酸菌共发酵的改良法发酵其发酵液SOD 活力高达510U/mL；改良法的抗超氧阴离子自由基能力、总酸含量要比传统法分别高出2.5 倍和10 倍；采用传统红茶菌菌膜发酵游离氨基酸和必需氨基酸总量都非常少，且在发酵后含量明显减少，而改良法发酵后游离氨基酸总量提高了5.4 倍，必需氨基酸总量提高了7.7 倍。综上，采用现代的醋酸菌、酵母菌、乳酸菌共发酵的红茶菌发酵液其SOD活力、抗超氧阴离子自由基能力、游离氨基酸及8 种必需氨基酸生成能力、产酸能力等均较传统的红茶菌菌膜发酵有大幅度提高。
Effects of Different Fermentation Processes on Effective Components of Kombucha
CHEN Xue-jiao，QU Dong-mei，SHAN Sheng-yan，WANG Chun-ru，SHAO Ming-kai，OU Kai*，LI Yan-jun
（1 Hangzhou Wahaha Group Co. Ltd.，Hangzhou 310018，China；
2 Key Laboratory of Food and Biological Engineering of Zhejiang Province，Hangzhou 310018，China）
Abstract: There are many problems to produce kombucha beverage with traditional method，such as long period，complex microbial flora and easy contaminations. It is difficult to ensure the stability of kombucha products. In this work，kombucha was produced by fermentation of black tea with both the combination of a yeast，lactobacillus and acetobacter and the traditional tea fungal inoculum. The differences in the chemical composition of kombucha between different fermentations were studied. The results showed that the SOD activity was undetectable in the traditional fermentation broth while it reached above 510U/mL in the modified fermentation broth. The inhibiting abilities of superoxide radical and total acid content are 2.5 times and 10 times higher than the traditional methods，respectively. The content of free amino acids and essential amino acids in fermented products by the modified method were improved about 5.4 times and 7.7 times，but which were significantly reduced after fermentation in fermented products by the traditional method. In conclusion，the modified fermentation method with pure strains as inocula would be superior to the traditional method using the mixed tea fungal inoculum owing to the increased activity of SOD，the inhibiting abilities of superoxide radical，free amino acids and the production of 8 kinds of essential amino acids，acid-producing ability in Kombucha.
Key words: kombucha；fermentation；effective composition